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VOLCANO ACTIVITY NOTIFICATIONS

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ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Friday, June 19, 2020, 1:15 PM AKDT (Friday, June 19, 2020, 21:15 UTC)


MAKUSHIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311310)
53°53'24" N 166°55'30" W, Summit Elevation 5906 ft (1800 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were increased to YELLOW/ADVISORY on June 16, 2020 due to the onset of earthquake activity centered southeast of the summit crater. Two earthquakes greater than M4.0 were detected early in the week. These events were felt in the community of Unalaska, located ~14 km or 8.6 miles from the epicenters. Numerous smaller earthquakes were also detected in this area. Earthquake activity continues, but the rate and magnitude of the quakes are decreasing.

These earthquakes may be associated with volcanic unrest but there have been no signs of deformation or surficial activity observed in other monitoring data. It is likely that we would see additional signs of unrest prior to eruptive activity, should it occur. The volcano is monitored with a network of seismic and GPS instruments, a web camera, satellite data, and regional infrasound and lightning detection instruments.

If an eruption were to occur, the main hazard would likely be from airborne ash and ash fall. Wind trajectory plots and hypothetical ash fall model information is available at https://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/Makushin.php These models are updated twice per day in a hypothetical mode and would be update immediately if there was an eruption. Seismic data, web camera images and information products are also available at this site.


Makushin Volcano is located on northern Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands. Makushin is a broad, ice-capped stratovolcano that rises to an elevation of 5906 feet (1800 m). The 1.86-mile-diameter (3 km) summit crater is the site of frequent steam and minor ash eruptions. Three large explosive eruptions occurred at Makushin between 6,000-9,000 years ago, depositing volcanic material many meters thick near the volcano, and several centimeters deep in the community of Unalaska and the port of Dutch Harbor, 16 miles (25 km) east of the volcano. The volcano is monitored with a network of seismic instruments, web camera, GPS, satellite data, and regional infrasound and lightning detection instruments.

VENIAMINOF VOLCANO (VNUM #312070)
56°11'52" N 159°23'35" W, Summit Elevation 8225 ft (2507 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level at Veniaminof were increased to YELLOW/ADVISORY on June 18, 2020 due to periods of seismic tremor and small earthquakes. Periods of low-amplitude seismic tremor continue, but no eruptive activity has been observed. Satellite and web camera observations of the volcano were mostly obscured by clouds over the past week.

This type of seismic activity typically precedes eruptive activity at Veniaminof but does not mean that an eruption will occur. Eruptive activity usually consists of minor ash emissions, lava fountaining and lava flows from the small cone in the summit caldera. Ash emissions are typically confined to the summit crater, but larger events can result in ash fall in nearby communities and drifting airborne ash.

Veniaminof volcano is monitored with a local real-time seismic network, which will typically allow AVO to detect changes in unrest that may lead to a more significant explosive eruption. AVO combines seismic, infrasound, lightning, and satellite data for rapid detection of such events.


Mount Veniaminof volcano is an andesitic stratovolcano with an ice-filled 10-km diameter summit caldera located on the Alaska Peninsula, 775 km (480 mi) southwest of Anchorage and 35 km (22 mi) north of Perryville. Veniaminof is one of the largest (~300 cubic km; 77 cubic mi) and most active volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc and has erupted at least 14 times in the past 200 years. Recent eruptions in 1993-95, 2005, 2013, and 2018 all occurred at the intracaldera cone and lasted for several months. These eruptions produced lava spattering and fountaining, minor emissions of ash and gas, and small lava flows into intracaldera icefield. Minor ash-producing explosions occurred nearly annually between 2002 and 2010. Previous historical eruptions have produced ash plumes that reached 15,000 to 20,000 ft above sea level (1939, 1956, and 2018) and ash fallout that blanketed areas within about 40 km (25 mi) of the volcano (1939, 2018).

SEMISOPOCHNOI VOLCANO (VNUM #311060)
51°55'44" N 179°35'52" E, Summit Elevation 2625 ft (800 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Unrest continues at Semisopochnoi. Throughout the week there were periods of moderate seismic tremor. At times, the tremor was accompanied by ground-coupled air waves. These ground-coupled air waves are likely produced by rapid degassing events that generate a pressure wave that is large enough to be recorded as a disturbance by seismic sensors (when the air wave contacts the ground). Sulfur dioxide plumes were detected in satellite data several times over the past week following these events, further suggesting that they are related to degassing. No evidence of ash emissions were observed in satellite data.

Semisopochnoi is monitored by local seismic sensors, satellite data, and lightning detection networks. An infrasound array on Adak Island may detect explosive emissions from Semisopochnoi with a slight delay (approximately 13 minutes) if atmospheric conditions permit.


Remote Semisopochnoi volcano occupies the largest, young volcanic island in the western Aleutians. The volcano is dominated by an 8-km (5-mile) diameter caldera that contains a small lake and a number of post-caldera cones and craters. The age of the caldera is not known with certainty but is likely early Holocene. The last known eruption of Semisopochnoi occurred in 1987, probably from Sugarloaf Peak on the south coast of the island, but details are lacking. Another prominent, young post-caldera landform is Mount Cerberus, a three-peaked cone cluster in the southwest part of the caldera. The island is uninhabited and part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. It is located 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Amchitka Island and 200 km (130 mi) west of Adak.

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (VNUM #311240)
52°49'20" N 169°56'42" W, Summit Elevation 5676 ft (1730 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert level at Cleveland were decreased to YELLOW/ADVISORY on June 17, 2020 due to observations of no ongoing eruptive activity. The last explosive event was on June 1, 2020. Unrest likely continues at Cleveland. No activity was seen in cloudy satellite views or detected on regional geophysical networks over the past week. The local geophysical stations and web camera at Cleveland are currently unavailable due to an ongoing network outage.

Episodes of lava effusion and explosions can occur without advance warning. Explosions from Cleveland are normally short duration and only present a hazard to aviation in the immediate vicinity of the volcano. Larger explosions that present a more widespread hazard to aviation are possible, but are less likely and occur less frequently.

When the network is operational, Cleveland volcano is monitored by only two seismic stations, which restricts AVO's ability to detect precursory unrest that may lead to an explosive eruption. Rapid detection of an ash-producing eruption may be possible using a combination of seismic, infrasound, lightning, and satellite data.


Cleveland volcano forms the western portion of Chuginadak Island, a remote and uninhabited island in the east central Aleutians. The volcano is located about 75 km (45 mi) west of the community of Nikolski, and 1500 km (940 mi) southwest of Anchorage. The most recent significant period of eruption began in February, 2001 and produced 3 explosive events that generated ash clouds as high as 39,000 ft above sea level. The 2001 eruption also produced a lava flow and hot avalanche that reached the sea. Since then, Cleveland has been intermittently active producing small lava flows, often followed by explosions that generate small ash clouds generally below 20,000 ft above sea level. These explosions also launch debris onto the slopes of the cone producing hot pyroclastic avalanches and lahars that sometimes reach the coastline.

SHISHALDIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311360)
54°45'19" N 163°58'16" W, Summit Elevation 9373 ft (2857 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Unrest continues at Shishaldin. Low-level seismicity continues. Satellite radar images show minor changes in the summit crater due to rock fall and small collapse events. Other satellite data and web camera observations were mostly obscured by clouds over the past week. No explosive activity was detected by regional infrasound sensors.

Although unrest is currently at low levels, conditions could change rapidly with minimal warning, and eruptive activity in the summit crater could resume. If eruptive activity does resume, lava flows, lahars, and ash-producing events could occur.

Shishaldin is monitored by local seismic and infrasound sensors, satellite data, web cameras, a telemetered geodetic network, and distant infrasound and lightning networks.


Shishaldin Volcano, located near the center of Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands, is a spectacular symmetric cone with a base diameter of approximately 16 km (10 mi). A 200-m-wide (660 ft) funnel-shaped summit crater typically emits a steam plume and occasional small amounts of ash. Shishaldin is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian volcanic arc, with at least 54 episodes of unrest including over 24 confirmed eruptions since 1775. Most eruptions are relatively small, although the April-May 1999 event generated an ash column that reached 45,000 ft above sea level.

GREAT SITKIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311120)
52°4'35" N 176°6'39" W, Summit Elevation 5709 ft (1740 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Unrest continues at Great Sitkin. Small local earthquakes continued over the past week. No explosive activity was detected by regional infrasound sensors. Satellite and web camera images were mostly obscured by clouds over the past week.

Great Sitkin volcano is monitored by local seismic and infrasound sensors, satellite data, web cameras, and remote infrasound and lightning networks.


Great Sitkin Volcano is a basaltic andesite volcano that occupies most of the northern half of Great Sitkin Island, a member of the Andreanof Islands group in the central Aleutian Islands. It is located 43 km (26 miles) east of the community of Adak. The volcano is a composite structure consisting of an older dissected volcano and a younger parasitic cone with a 3-km-diameter summit crater. A steep-sided lava dome, emplaced during an eruption in 1974, occupies the center of the crater. Great Sitkin erupted at least three times in the 20th century, most recently in 1974. That eruption produced at least one ash cloud that likely exceeded an altitude of 25,000 ft above sea level. A poorly documented eruption occurred in 1945, also producing a lava dome that was partially destroyed in the 1974 eruption. Within the past 280 years a large explosive eruption produced pyroclastic flows that partially filled the Glacier Creek valley on the southwest flank.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Information on all Alaska volcanoes is available at : http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

For definitions of Aviation Color Codes and Volcano Alert Levels, see: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/color_codes.php

SUBSCRIBE TO VOLCANO ALERT MESSAGES by email: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns/

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CONTACT INFORMATION:

Michelle Coombs, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
mcoombs@usgs.gov (907) 786-7497

David Fee, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGI
dfee1@alaska.edu (907) 322-4085



The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.
VOLCANO ALERT LEVELS
NORMAL
Volcano is in typical background, noneruptive state or, after a change from a higher level, volcanic activity has ceased and volcano has returned to noneruptive background state.
ADVISORY
Volcano is exhibiting signs of elevated unrest above known background level or, after a change from a higher level, volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.
WATCH
Volcano is exhibiting heightened or escalating unrest with increased potential of eruption, timeframe uncertain, OR eruption is underway but poses limited hazards.
WARNING
Hazardous eruption is imminent, underway, or suspected.
AVIATION COLOR CODES
GREEN
Volcano is in typical background, noneruptive state or, after a change from a higher level, volcanic activity has ceased and volcano has returned to noneruptive background state.
YELLOW
Volcano is exhibiting signs of elevated unrest above known background level or, after a change from a higher level, volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.
ORANGE
Volcano is exhibiting heightened or escalating unrest with increased potential of eruption, timeframe uncertain, OR eruption is underway with no or minor volcanic-ash emissions [ash-plume height specified, if possible].
RED
Eruption is imminent with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere likely OR eruption is underway or suspected with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere [ash-plume height specified, if possible].
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Page modified: February 17, 2017 10:11
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