AVO Logo
Site Map | FAQ |
Alaska Volcano Observatory
About Alaska's Volcanoes | Hazards from Alaska's Volcanoes | Map & Alphabetical List | Interactive Map | Eruption Search | Volcano Search 
You are here: Home > Volcano Information

Bogoslof reported activity




Event Name : Bogoslof 1906/3

Start:March 1906 ± 1 MonthsObserved
Stop:January 1907 ± 3 MonthsObserved

Lava dome: BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard
Island-forming: BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard
Submarine: BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard BibCard
Eruption Type:Explosive
MaxVEI: 3 BibCard
Duration: About 9 months BibCard
Eruption Product: andesite BibCard

Description: The Smithsonian Volcanoes of the World book and the Global Volcanism Program online database considers the time period between March, 1906, and September, 1907, to be one eruption at Bogoslof. However, the GeoDIVA database has separated the formation and destruction of Metcalf Cone (March, 1906-January, 1907) as one eruption, and the formation and destruction of McCulloch Peak (January 1907-September 1907) is treated as a separate eruption.

From Miller and others, 1998: "In 1906, a dome bearing a broken spire at its summit appeared midway between Old and New Bogoslof. This structure, called Metcalf Cone, exploded in late 1906 or early 1907, destroying its southern extent." Lieutenant-Commander Garrett first saw Metcalf Cone, and proposed for it the name Metcalf Cone.

On July 10, the USRCS Thetis "reconnoitered Bogoslof" and reported "* * * observed that a new island had sprung up between the two old ones, about 1/3 of the distance from the first one (which came up in 1801) to the second (1881) and connected to the first one by a ridge of land; a long spit runs out form the Southern end of the new island, just as one runs from each of the others. A crater pouring, firth vapor, is opened on the North side about 3/4 of the way up, and all around the island, vapor is spurting up through fissures, and the vapor is so thick over the surface of the island that it looks like bank of snow. There is no indication of boiling water, reported by Dirks, around the island. Sounded in 175 fms of water, within in three miles of the island, showing no general upheaval, but the water appears to be shoaler between the islands than it formerly were." These logbook pages are viewable at http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS%20Thetis/vol610/vol610_040_0.jpg and http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS%20Thetis/vol610/vol610_040_1.jpg .

Later, members of the S.S. Perry saw the same structure, and, not knowing of Garrett's previous name for it, called it Perry Peak." Logbooks from the US Revenue Cutter Service Perry are available at http://www.oldweather.org/ships/523c928e68f4b82a89000002. The July 29, 1906 sighting is recorded on this page: http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/Commodore%20perry//Volumes/Seagate%20Backup%20Plus%20Drive/Arfon-JPEGS/RG26/COMMODORE%20PERRY//vol183/vol183_026_1.jpg .

Jaggar (1908) states that the activity began in March, 1906, and summarizes various accounts and articles of this eruption as follows: "Lieutenant-Commander Garrett, U.S.N., reported that the Albatross reached the Bogoslof Islands May 29, 1906, and found a steaming new cone midway between the two older islands. It was connected with Grewingk by a low flat ridge, but separated by a channel from Castle Rock. This channel was later sounded by officers of the Revenue S.S. Perry, and seven fathoms were reported. Garrett wrote: 'The new land is conical in appearance, and consists of a mass of eruptive rocks, among which traces of sulphur are plainly visible. It possesses no distinct crater, but numerous vents among the rocks, from which volumes of steam issued.' The summit showed a broken horn bending to the northeast, 'as though the mass had been forced up through an aperture while in a plastic condition, the sides being quite smooth.' This horn proved a remarkable feature, and the key to the whole structure.

" * * * Garrett's suggestion of a rising plastic mass was correct. He proposed for the new hill the name 'Metcalf Cone' in honour of Secretary Metcalf.

"Mr. Robert Dunn visited the new cone in a schooner in July, 1906, and climbed the new peak. He saw that the pudding-like cone had a solid rock core, and that the salt-water lagoon which half encircled it on the north had a temperature varying from seventy to ninety degrees. There was no noise. The pinnacle on the summit was like a great parrot's beak, rounded and smooth on the west, but making an overhanging cliff forty feet high on the east. The steam-vents gave temperatures varying from 94 to 212 degrees, and the hottest vent, at the foot of the parrot cliff, was adjacent to rock practically incandescent, for here a piece of paper burst into flame. The top of the spine was about 390 feet above sea-level by pocket barometer."

Jaggar (1930) states that "at the beginning of 1907 Metcalf Cone was broken in two, while the channel between it and Castle Rock had filled itself with a new steaming heap of lava."

Newhall and Melson (1983) estimate that the volume of the Metcalf, McCullogh, and Tahoma Peak lava domes (1906-1910) was about 5x10^6 cubic meters. Simkin and Siebert (2002-) estimate a tephra volume of 5.1 +/- 5.0 x 10^8 cubic meters, based on Sapper's (1927) classification.

Contact AVO Privacy Accessibility Information Quality FOIA
URL: www.avo.alaska.edu/volcanoes/activity.php
Page modified: March 30, 2017 14:36
Contact Information: AVO Web Team

twitter @alaska_avo
facebook alaska.avo
email Receive volcano updates by email: USGS VNS

This website is supported by the U.S. Geological Survey under Cooperative Agreement Grant G19AC00060 and G19AC00171.

Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.